The thyroid is a simple bi-lobed endocrine gland.
It sits exactly at the center of the neck and releases a certain amount of thyroid hormones to regulate the whole body’s metabolism.
When a thyroid gland is affected by a certain disease, the disease further develops to cause either hyperthyroidism (overproduction of thyroid hormone) or hypothyroidism (less production of thyroid hormone).
The 5 Most Common Thyroid Diseases are:-
1. Hashimoto’s Thyroiditis:-
It is also called CHRONIC LYMPHOCYTIC THYROIDITIS and is most commonly seen in middle-aged women.
Hashimoto’s thyroiditis is an autoimmune disease where the body’s immune system detects its own thyroid cells as rivals and attacks them, thereby destroying a large number of these cells. This, in turn, leads to a decrease in thyroid hormones, causing HYPOTHYROIDISM.
Symptoms of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis:-
2. Stomach upset
4. Visibly dry and flaky skin
5. Dry scalp
6. Hair fall
7. Weight gain due to poor metabolism
8. Pale eyes
9. Puffy and swollen face
10. Irregular menstruation and heavy flow
11. Sensitivity to cold
12. Swelling of the thyroid forms a huge lump called GOITER.
2. Grave’s Disease:-
It is most common in women of any age.
When this disease attacks an individual, the person’s immune system automatically produces antibodies as resistance to it. But here, the antibodies produced are thyroid hormones. These thyroid hormones fight the disease, neutralize the pathogens, and their defensive work is done. After which, they get accumulate in the blood, causing hyperthyroidism.
Causes of Grave’s disease:-
Symptoms of Grave’s disease:-
On overproduction of thyroid hormone due to grave’s disease, the symptoms that would be seen are:
2. Rapid heart rate
3. Profound sweating
6. Weakness or lack of strength in hands
7. Lack of sleep
8. Sudden weight loss
10. Irregular menstrual cycle
12. Bulging eyes
It is common in people of all ages, especially in women who are older than 40 years old.
Goiter is mostly seen in people living in the hilly region as the food growing there has less iodine content, apparently because of less iodine in its soil. Less iodine means less thyroid hormone production, thereby causing hypothyroidism.
This disease looks like a swollen lump in the neck, but it is not cancerous.
GOITER IS DIFFUSE ENLARGEMENT OF THE WHOLE OF THE GLAND, WHEREAS THYROID NODULE CAN BE JUST NODULAR ENLARGEMENT OF ONE PORTION OF THE GLAND
Causes for Goiter:-
1. Iodine deficiency
2. Grave’s disease
3. Inflammation of the thyroid
4. Tumor in the pituitary gland
Symptoms of Goiter:-
1. Large swollen lump in the neck
2. Shortness of breath
3. Difficulty in swallowing
5. Change in voice or rough voice
4. Thyroid Nodules:-
It is most common in old women when compared to men.
Thyroid nodules are the formation of small lumps of nodules on the thyroid gland due to the extracellular growth of thyroid cells. Therefore, these nodules are either benign or cancerous.
The extra-growing thyroid cells lead to excess production of thyroid hormone, causing hyperthyroidism.
Causes of Thyroid Nodule:-
1. Iodine deficiency
2. Hashimoto’s thyroiditis
Symptoms of Thyroid Nodule:-
1. Lumps on the thyroid
2. Difficulty in swallowing and breathing
3. Pain in the throat
4. Rapid heart rate
6. Abrupt weight loss
7. Hand tremors
8. Increase in appetite
But when nodules (extra thyroid cells) and hypothyroidism (loss of thyroid cells) coexist in the same person, the total thyroid hormone levels are not too high. In such cases, the symptoms are:-
10. Dry skin
11. Hair loss
12. Weight gain
13. Sensitivity to cold
## Important point …
THE THYROID GLAND BECOMES ENLARGED IN SIZE BOTH IN GOITER AND THYROID NODULE, AND IN BOTH CASES, THEY PRESENT AS A SWELLING IN THE NECK, THEN WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN GOITER AND THYROID NODULE?
GOITER IS DIFFUSE ENLARGEMENT OF THE WHOLE OF THE GLAND, WHEREAS THYROID NODULE CAN BE JUST NODULAR ENLARGEMENT OF ONE PORTION OF THE GLAND.
5. Thyroid Cancer:-
Thyroid cancer is a condition of excess growth of thyroid cells producing a large amount of thyroid hormone (hyperthyroidism).
Causes of Thyroid Cancer:-
Symptoms of Thyroid Cancer:-
1. Swelling in the neck
2. Difficulty in breathing and swallowing
3. Rough voice
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